My thoughts are, if it were a male friend as opposed to a female one (as in this instance), I would highly doubt your Husband would pounce on the phone if his male friend had texted him.
OP, you know your husband better than any of us and if you feel in your heart of hearts he is not having some type of inapropriate relationship or the like, then you have nothing to fear.
That said, did you over react to the situation? I think you had a very justified knee jerk reaction to the way your husband reacted in front of you, there is nothing wrong with that.
I hope you can both sit down and have a good chat about what's happened and both come away feeling good about everything and more importantly on the same page.